Practices in Craniofacial Superimposition that should be avoided

  1. Confirmation bias (e.g. coercive situations with investigating authorities, a misplaced enthusiasm to be a good citizen and be helpful etc.).

  2. Attempt CFS on edentulous skulls (except in cases where skull morphology is highly individualizing with extreme malformations).

  3. Using just one single, low resolution, frontal passport-style photograph for comparison.

  4. Cases where the subject is under the age of 5 years.